Category Archives: Respiratory Symptoms - Part 9

Breathlessness in Patients with Chronic Airflow Limitation: Spontaneous Breathing

We have argued that in demonstrably flow-limited patients during spontaneous breathing at rest, expiratory transtho-racic pressures attain, but do not exceed, the critical flow-limiting pressure (Pcrit), thus obviating DC and its deleterious sensory consequences. Similarly, during constant-load submaximal exercise in … Continue reading

Breathlessness in Patients with Chronic Airflow Limitation: Dynamic Airway Compression and Breathlessness in CAL

The second consequence of expiratory flow limitation is dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) comments canadian family pharmacy. In the setting of increased ventilatory demand when expiratory flow is reduced and expiratory time is insufficiently long, inspiration begins before lung volume has … Continue reading

Breathlessness in Patients with Chronic Airflow Limitation: Intrinsic Mechanical Loading and Breathlessness in CAL

Ventilatory responses for a given metabolic load were, on average, 33 percent higher in the SB group. The two groups were well matched for resting pulmonary function parameters such as FEVi, but values for single-breath diffusion capacity in the SB … Continue reading

Breathlessness in Patients with Chronic Airflow Limitation: Physiologic Correlates

Breathlessness is a common and often incapacitating symptom in patients with advanced chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and may seriously curtail their ability to exercise. In its later stages, the disease is essentially irreversible and management strategies must necessarily be directed … Continue reading

Pulmonary Disease From Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Conclusions

In spite of the difficulties imposed by the rarity of the disease and the difficulties with diagnostic criteria, it seems clear that the radiographic appearance of NTM in AIDS is not that seen in immunocompetent hosts; cavitation is uncommon and … Continue reading

Pulmonary Disease From Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Discussion

Tuberculosis (MTb) affects patients with all stages of HIV infection, although the likelihood of dissemination and atypical presentations may increase with progressive immunodeficiency. On the other hand, NTM species appear to cause serious infection only in patients with advanced HIV … Continue reading

Pulmonary Disease From Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: M tuberculosis

This is in distinct contrast to patients without AIDS as noted by Prince et al who identified a group of 21 patients with MAC pulmonary disease without predisposing conditions. Nodular opacities were noted in 71 percent and cavitary changes were … Continue reading

Pulmonary Disease From Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: M gordonae

Mycobacterium gordonae (formerly M aquae) is often isolated from water sources and is usually considered nonpathogenic when isolated from patient specimens. Rare cases of well-documented infection, typically in patients with immunosuppression or malignancy, have been reported. Disseminated M gordonae infection … Continue reading

Pulmonary Disease From Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Mycobacterium fortuitum

Mycobacterium fortuitum and M chelonae are classified as rapidly growing mycobacteria. These are ubiquitous environmental organisms; human infections are most commonly associated with direct inoculation of organisms via surgery, trauma, or in association with foreign bodies. Although bronchopulmonary infections may … Continue reading

Pulmonary Disease From Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Mycobacterium xenopi

Mycobacterium xenopi is a nonchromogenic mycobacterial species with antigenic similarity to MAC. It is commonly cultured from water sources and grows optimally at somewhat higher temperatures (42 to 43°C) than other mycobacteria. Outbreaks of human infection have been associated with … Continue reading

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