Category Archives: Growth Factor - Part 3

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ER LIGAND-INDEPENDENT ACTIVATION(2)

Studies with pharmacological agents established the potential of the ER to be activated in the absence of estrogen. The subsequent demonstration that several naturally occurring substances, including the neurotransmitter dopamine and growth factors (see below), could stimulate ER transcriptional activity … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ER LIGAND-INDEPENDENT ACTIVATION(1)

Mechanistic studies have defined several molecular events associated with estrogen-dependent activation of the ER, including changes in receptor conformation, increased interaction with coactivators, increased receptor phosphorylation, and alterations in the ability of receptor to bend DNA. Although the mechanism(s) by … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ESTROGEN RESPONSES(3)

The inability of EGF to elicit these proliferative and transcriptional effects in the ERKO mouse is not due to a general defect in EGF signaling. Wild-type and ERKO mice express comparable levels of EGF-receptor in the uterus, which autophosphorylates in … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ESTROGEN RESPONSES(2)

The subsequent demonstration that the pure antiestrogen ICI 164,384 could partially block EGF-induced, uterine DNA synthesis indicated that at least a portion of the proliferative response was mediated by the ER and suggested that EGF signaling pathways could cross-talk with … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ESTROGEN RESPONSES(1)

Estrogens, acting via the ER, are important regulators of the growth, differentiation, and function of many reproductive tissues including the uterus, vagina, ovary, mammary gland, and brain. The ability of estrogens to stimulate cell proliferation is well established and can … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ER PHOSPHORYLATION(2)

For example, a point mutant (serine118 —» alanine118) form of human ER is more active in COS-1 than in HeLa cells and is a more effective activator of the pS2-CAT synthetic target gene than the chicken ovalbumin gene-derived reporter construct, … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ER PHOSPHORYLATION(1)

Activation of the ER by estrogenic ligands is associated with increases in overall receptor phosphorylation. Using a combination of direct (amino acid and radiolabel sequencing) and indirect (deletion and site-directed mutagenesis) approaches, five phosphorylation sites have been mapped within the … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor Signaling Pathways(2)

It is generally accepted that site-specific transcription factors, such as steroid receptors, stimulate gene expression by promoting the assembly of basal transcription factors (TF) into a stable preinitiation complex that facilitates an increased rate of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor Signaling Pathways(1)

The estrogen receptor (ER) belongs to a nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-regulatable transcription factors. The ER is a modular protein consisting of an amino-terminal region (A/В domain) that influences transcriptional activity, a centrally located DNA binding region (C domain), and … Continue reading

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