Category Archives: Growth Factor - Part 2

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 Regulation of Conceptus Composition: MATERIALS AND METHODS(4)

The remaining 67 viable conceptuses were distributed among 13 litters. Conceptuses with placentae flattened against each other contributed to all the data except the effect of their genotype on their own weight (one conceptus apposed to a blighted twin and … Continue reading

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 Regulation of Conceptus Composition: MATERIALS AND METHODS(3)

In the recombination experiments, the volume bounded by the yolk sac was estimated by photographing the isolated whole conceptuses over graph paper soon after the death of the mother, taking the mean of the short and long axis of the … Continue reading

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 Regulation of Conceptus Composition: MATERIALS AND METHODS(2)

Measurements In all experiments, the wet weights are the weights after partial removal of fluid from around the tissue with absorbent paper, with the tissue held on a plastic coffee spoon or dish. In the initial observations of nonmanipulated con-ceptuses, … Continue reading

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 Regulation of Conceptus Composition: MATERIALS AND METHODS(1)

Mice, Manipulation, and Dissection All experimental procedures were conducted under licenses issued by the Home Office (UK) in accordance with the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. Male Igf2 +m/—P mice, kindly provided by Prof A. Ef-stratiadis (Columbia University, New York, … Continue reading

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 Regulation of Conceptus Composition: Effects of the Trophectoderm and Inner Cell Mass Genotypes in the Mouse

Unusually high levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) increase body size and can cause edema in both humans and mice. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify the effects of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) deficiency on the … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

The importance of growth factor induction of ER transcriptional activity to normal physiological responses is not clear at the present time. It is possible that growth factors maintain moderate levels of ER transcriptional activity when estrogen levels are very low, … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: GROWTH FACTOR(2)

Several approaches have been employed to establish that an EGF-induced МАРК signaling cascade can activate the ER. Overexpression of a dominant active Ras mutant, c-Ki-RasVa112, increases the transcriptional activity of ER mutants lacking the ligand binding domain, whereas receptor constructs … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: GROWTH FACTOR(1)

The plasma membrane-associated receptors for EGF, TGFa, heregulin, IGF-I, and insulin are type I tyrosine kinase receptors. Upon binding of a growth factor to the extracellular domain of its receptor, it undergoes autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and subsequently acquires the … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ER LIGAND-INDEPENDENT ACTIVATION(4)

Co-administration of estradiol and EGF or IGF-I increases ER target gene expression to an extent greater than either agent alone, and in some instances, this response appears to be synergistic. Interestingly, the ability of IGF-I and estrogen-dependent activation pathways to … Continue reading

Cross-Talk between Peptide Growth Factor and Estrogen Receptor: ER LIGAND-INDEPENDENT ACTIVATION(3)

In addition to EGF and TGFa, several other growth factors are capable of activating ER-dependent gene expression. In primary rat uterine cell cultures treated with IGF-I, target gene expression is stimulated to an extent similar to estradiol, and both responses … Continue reading

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